初级英语语法:主谓一致

主谓一致的含义:谓语动词人称和数上与主语保持一致。

涉及主谓一致主要有以下几处:

1. 一般现在时中,主语是第三人称单数的时候,谓语动词要用单三形式,即加-s或-es,变化规则类似与名词单数变复数。具体可参见一般现在时的讲解http://www.iidream.com/post-38.html

2. 其它时态中,涉及到助动词be(进行时)和have(完成时)的时候,也需要注意主谓一致。

3. There be句型中,谓语动词be的单复数要与be动词后最近的主语名词一致。称为就近原则,是中考的必考知识点。There be句型是一种倒装句型。

There is a computer and some books on the desk.

There are some books and a computer on the desk.

遵循就近原则的还有以下情况:

正式文体中编辑
一、由下列词语连接的并列主语:"there be+句型; or ; either …or;nor; neither…nor;whether…or;not…but; not only…but also" ;等。
  例句:
  1.What he does or what he says does not concern me.
  他的行为或言谈都与我无关。
  2.Neither you nor I am wrong .
  你和我都没错。
  3.Not you but your father is to blame.
  不是你,而是你的父亲该受责备。
  4.Not only you but(also) he is wrong.
  不仅你错了,他也错了。
二、在倒装句中:谓语可与后面第一个主语一致。
例句:
1. In the distance was heard the clapping of hands and the shouts of the people . 
  在远处,能听见鼓掌声和人们的呼喊声。
  2.There is a pen and some books on the desk.
  桌上有一支钢笔和几本书。
  3.There are some books and a pen on the desk.
  桌子上有几本书和一支钢笔。
非正式文体中编辑
有时依“就近一致原则”,但也可依“意义一致原则”或严格地依“语法一致原则”。
例句:
Neither she nor I were there. (意义一致) 我和她当时都不在那儿。(非正式)
  Neither she nor I was there .(就近一致)(译文同上句)(正式)
但是,如果依“就近一致原则”而与其他两项原则相矛盾时,则常常认为是不太合符规范的。
No one except his own supporters agrees with him .
  仅他自己的支持者同意他的意见。(依“就近”和“意义”一致的原则;但语法上,“No one ”才是主语,谓语要改成“agrees”。“写作中”一般要依“语法一致”原则。)

 

与之相对应的还有“就远原则”,有兴趣的同学可以了解一下。

当用作主语的成分后面跟有由but, except, besides, including, like, with, as well as, as much as, no less than, along with, in addition to, combined with, rather than, together with等引出的短语时,谓语动词习惯上要与这些结构前面的主语保持一致(即与比较远的那个主语保持一致)。

Nobody but two students is in the classroom.除了这两个学生,没有人在教室
Everybody except you is down on me. 除了你,大家都看不起我。
A woman with two children has come. 一位妇女带着两个孩子已经来了。
John, rather than his roommates, is to blame. 约翰,而不是他的室友,应该受到责备。
Jim, together with his classmates, has seen the film. 吉姆和他的同学一起看了这部电影。
My father, no less than I, is a base-ball fan. 我的父亲不亚于我也是个棒球迷。
The son, as well as his parents, wants to go there. 不但儿子想去那儿,而且他的父母也想去。
The teacher, as well as the students, is interested in the activity. 老师也和同学们一样对这项活动有兴趣。

注意一点,就是确定好主语的核心词。

2017-07-21

 

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