详解英语句子成分

2016-01-30 

英语学习没有捷径,只有一步一个脚印! 回顾我当初学习英语语法的历程,从初中、高中直到大学,语法一直以不同的形式见诸于各类考试的试题当中。现在,尽管各类考试纷纷进行改革,取消或弱化对语法“显性”的考察,转而加强对语言运用能力的考察。然而,对于语法“隐性”的考察却从来没有终止过,也不可能停止!比如,单项选择、完形填空、阅读(考察长句或复合句)、写作,无一不需要坚实的语法知识作为基石。因此,从某种程度上讲,对语法的考核实际上并未削弱。

  把英语作为一门外语来学,对其语法的学习将是一项长期的任务。一定要消除“任务”或“投机”心态。俗话说,兴趣是最好的老师,语法学习是一个长期积累、不断提高的过程,在“任务”的心态之下,语法学习容易变成一种被迫的行为,很难持之以恒;而在“投机”的心态之下,语法学习容易变成一种短期行为,试图在短期内一蹴而就反而会遭遇“欲速则不达” 的困境。因此,在语法学习的过程中,要善于发掘或培养自身的兴趣,比如,不妨多看看适合自身水平的英语读物;听听英语歌曲,许多歌词本身就包含着某些语法规则;多写些英语句段等。总的来说,语法的学习应遵循以下两个基本原则:
  第一、要记忆,但不要僵化
  语法到底是不是一种“规则”?本人认为,语法是规则,但又不完全是规则。对于初学者而言,规则是要去遵守的,比如不同时态的构成形式,各类句式的构成要素等等,如果缺乏对规则的了解,面对零散的单词,是不可能建造起语言的大厦的。这也是为什么很多人面对长难句束手无策,想要表达自己的观点却搜肠刮肚写不出来的原因之一。从这个意义上说,语法是语言运用的规则。
  第二、勤练习,能举一反三
  语言的掌握和运用,熟能生巧是关键。正如“拳不离手,曲不离口”。语法的规则和理论需要在实践中巩固、消化,乃至举一反三。随着语法学习的深入和英语水平的不断提高,就会发现并不需要刻意去关注语法规则,这并不是说规则消失了,而是潜移默化成了一种思维模式,就像我们运用母语一样。从这个意义上说,语法不完全是规则。
  英语的句子成分与汉语相比既有不少相似之处,更有一些较大的差异,它是构成英语语法的框架。要读懂复杂的句子、写出较有深度的句子,了解和掌握英语的句子成分是非常必要的。希望以上的观点对于同学们今后的英语学习有所帮助。
  句  子  成  分
  概 述
  英语在其长期发展过程中形成了一种相对固定的句子结构:“主语+谓语”,这与汉语是相似的。“主语”是句子的话题,是信息传递的出发点;“谓语”是对话题所作的说明,是说话人说要传递的信息。试观察下列句子:
  主语      谓语
  I              am a Chinese boy.
  Mary           has two best friends
  Seeing         is believing .
  To do          is harder than to say.
  We             wish you success!
  从上述例子可以看出,作为句子的话题,主语通常是一些事物性或实体性的词,否则,主语便不能成为句子的话题,不能成为信息传递的出发点。所以,主语通常是个名词、名词词组、或者相当于名词(词组)的语法结构。而谓语是对主语所做的说明,它指出主语所表示的事物或概念是或不是什么,有或没有什么,要或不要什么,做了或未作什么等等。因此,谓语通常是述说性的,他能说明情况,表达意愿,评判美丑,分辨是非。所以,谓语通常由动词或动词词组来担任,而且谓语部分在结构上通常要比主语长一些或者更复杂一些。英语句子的谓语是动词性的,这就是说,谓语是以动词为中心的。而在汉语中,谓语有的是:① 动词性的,如:“我去北京。猫吃老鼠”;但也有:② 名词性的,如:“那张桌子四条腿。今天星期一。”如果硬说“有三条腿、是星期一”,在汉语中反倒不自然。可是,倘用英语来表达这些句子,则必须有个动词;在汉语中还有:③ 形容词性谓语,就是直接拿形容词作谓语,不带任何动词,如:“那孩子聪明。那件事危险。”,就用不着动词。但诸如此类的句子用英语去表达,可千万别忘了动词。“The boy is clever. That matter is dangerous.”
  由此可见,在汉语中,名词和形容词都可以独立作谓语,但在英语中却不可以。下面我们就从主语和谓语入手详细剖析英语的句子成分。
  句子成分的定义:组成一个句子的各个部分,叫做句子成分。包括:主语、谓语(宾语、表语)、以及用于修饰句中名词和代词的定语、修饰句中动词、形容词和副词的状语。主语和谓语构成句子的骨架,而定语和状语则是修饰骨架的血肉,是修饰语。句子成分主要由实词担任。实词包括:名次、动词、代词、形容词、副词和数词。虚词在句中只起连接、限定或表达喜怒哀乐感情等作用,不做句子成分。虚词包括:介词、连词、冠词和感叹词等。
  一 、主 语
  主语相当于句子的话题或主题,即要说明的人或物。主语一般位于句首,且不能省略。但在某些特定的句式里,如:疑问句倒装句祈使句感叹句等,句子主语也可以位于谓语动词之后或省略。【想一想】哪些词类或短语可以用作主语?(答:能用来做主语的有:名词、代词、数词、动名词或动名词短语、动词不定式或动词不定式短语、主语从句等。)
  1 名词(或名词词组)
  My pen is green. (单数可数名词)
  Jane  is  an  American  girl. (专有名词)
  2、代词
  I  am  a  student. (主格人称代词)
  Her pen is blue, and mine is red.(名词性物主代词)
  These are my books. (指示代词)
  Who is not here today? (疑问代词)
  Nothing was wrong with his eyes. (不定代词)
  3、数词
  Two and one is three. (基数词)
  The second was a tall man. (序数词)
  4、动名词
  Eating too much is bad for your health. (动名词)
  Playing games is much better than staying at home. (动名词短语)
  5、形容词
  The rich are not always happy.(少数形容词前边加the 相当于名词)
  6、动词不定式
  To  see  is to believe.(动词不定式)
  It will take you 2 hours to get to the station.(it作形式主语,动词不定式短语作真正主语)
  7、主语从句(仅作了解)
  What the teacher said yesterday is important.
  △几个常见加the后可以名词化的形容词是:poor, rich, young, old,happy,blind, beautiful等。
  △主语和谓语的顺序有两种:(1)自然顺序,即主语在前,谓语在后;(2)倒装语序,即谓语或谓语的一部分在前, 主语位于其后。例如:
  Are you a student?
  Do you like English songs?
  What do you speak?
  There is a bird in the tree. (there be 句型)
  Here is your pen. (以副词here/there开头的句子习惯上主谓倒装)
  There stands a policeman.
  二 、谓 语
  句子中用来说明主语的动作或存在的状态的部分,叫谓语。谓语一般位于主语之后,谓语中最重要的部分是谓语动词,它有时态、语态和语气的变化,并受主语人称和数的影响;既然谓语是以动词为中心的,那么,我们研究谓语就从动词入手。(附:△动词)
  (一)、动词的意义:表示动作或状态。
  (二)、动词的用法:1、作谓语动词;2、可以有自己的状语;3、及物动词有自己的宾语。
  (三)、动词的分类:
  1、行为动词(或实义动词,v.),占动词数量的绝大多数,具有明确的动作意义,行为动词分为不及物动词和及物动词,不及物动词本身词义完整,可以独立作谓语,及物动词本身词义不完整,必须后跟宾语共同作谓语;
  2、连系动词(link v.),起连接主语和表语的作用,本身有一定的词义,但是较弱,它和实意动词一样有时态和语态的变化,也受主语的人称和数的影响。连系动词可分为两大类:1)表示存在的连系动词,如:be,keep,look, smell, taste, sound, feel, remain(仍是,保持), seem(好像),lie(处于),appear(呈现)等; 2)表示变化、形成的连系动词,如:become, get, turn, fall(变成),come(实现),grow(变成)等。
  3、助动词(aux v.),用以帮助行为动词和联系动词,构成各种时态、语态、语气,或构成疑问、否定、强调等句子结构;常见的助动词有:be, do, have, will ( shall )。助动词一般无词义,不能单独作谓语,只能和行为动词或联系动词共同作谓语动词。     注意:上述四个助动词都兼有另外的动词类别,在不同的语境中扮演着不同的角色:
  be
  a、助动词,帮助动词的现在分词构成进行时;帮助动词的过去分词构成被动语态;
  We are running on the playground.
  The flowers are often watered by me.
  b、联系动词,表示存在,和它的表语共同构成谓语。
  We are ready for the exam.
  I am in Beijing now.
  do
  a、助动词,帮助行为动词构成否定句、疑问句、或对行为动词加以强调。
  I don’t know the man.
  I do believe my answer is right.
  b、行为动词,“做”,例如:do shopping , do homework , do sports …等等。
  have
  a、助动词,帮助动词的过去分词构成完成时。.
  b、行为动词,“有”、“让……(做),使……(做)”。
  I have a new MP4. /  I have had my hair cut.
  will
  a、助动词,帮助行为动词构成将来时。
  He will visit China next year.
  b、情态动词,表示"意愿"。― Will you please…? /― Sorry, I won't.
  4、情态动词
  情态动词又被称作情态助动词,有一定的词义,主要用来表示说话人对某一动作或状态的态度或看法,表示能力、允许、请求、必要、可能、需要等。初中阶段出现的情态动词有:can / could,  may/might,  must,  shall/should,
  由此可见,行为动词、联系动词是谓语动词的核心,助动词和情态动词在谓语动词中起辅助作用(帮助构成各种时态、语态、语气、疑问、否定和强调)。因此,行为动词和联系动词决定着谓语的形式,从而演变出了简单句的五种基本句型( ①、②、③、④、⑤ ):
  1、当谓语动词是联系动词时,谓语的形式是:联系动词+表语,所构成的简单句的基本句型是:
  ①“主语+联系动词+表语”,即“主系表”结构。
  2、当谓语动词是行为动词时,又分为以下四种情况:
  (1)、当谓语动词是不及物动词时,其后没有宾语,独自构成谓语,所构成的简单句的基本句型是:
  ②“主语+不及物动词”。即“主谓”结构。
  (2)、当谓语动词是及物动词时,其后必须跟宾语,及物动词和其宾语一起构成谓语。根据所跟宾语的形式(单宾语、双宾语、复合宾语),又构成了三种简单句的基本句型:
  ③“主语+及物动词+宾语”,即“主谓宾”结构。
  ④“主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语”,即“主谓双宾语”结构。
  ⑤“主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语”,宾语和宾语补足语称作复合宾语,所以称作“主谓复合宾语”结构。
  下面就针对谓语中所包含的表语和宾语进行阐述:
  1、表语
  表语在句中用来说明主语的身份、性质、特征、状态、职业、内容、数量、(动作)方向或处所等。表语一般位于连系动词之后,二者共同构成谓语。可以担任表语的有:名词、代词、形容词、副词、动词不定式、动名词、数词以及从句(表语从句)等。例如:
  (1)、名词
  Mr. Black is a worker. (名词,表示身份。)
  Ann is an American girl.
  Five years later, he turned an engineer.
  (2)、形容词
  Those flowers are nice.(形容词,表示性质或特征。)
  I felt sorry for them. (形容词,表示状态。)
  We must keep healthy. (连系动词keep+形容词作表语)
  This book looks new.
  The baby falls asleep.(连系动词fall+表语形容词作表语)
  (3)、代词
  ― Who is it? (疑问代词,表示身份。)
  ― It’s  me. (代词宾格,表示身份。)
  These are something new. (不定代词,表示内容。)
  The man in the picture is himself. (反身代词,表示身份。)
  The right answer is that. (指示代词,表示内容。)
  (4)、动词不定式
  To see is to believe. (动词不定式,表示内容。)
  My aim is to become a doctor.(系动词be+不定式作表语,表示内容。)
  (5)、动名词
  Seeing is believing. (动名词,表示内容。)
  My job is teaching English. (动名词短语,表示内容。)
  (6)、介词短语
  Mike is from England. (表示动作方向)
  Your book is on the desk. (表示处所。)
  (7)、副词
  ― Is Bill in? (此处的in是副词:“在家”,表示处所。)
  ― No, he is out. (此处的out是副词:“在外面”,表示处所。)
  (8)、数词
  The telephone number is 3332117. (基数词,表示内容。)
  Three minus two is one. (基数词,表示内容。)
  Who is first in the high jump? (序数词独立作表语时前面不加the)
  He is always the first to come. (to come 作 first 的定语,前面加the 。)
  (9)、表语从句
  That’s why I want to stay here. (表语从句,表示内容。)
  2、宾语
  句子中,表示谓语动词动作对象的成分叫宾语,宾语是动作的承受着。英语中,及物动词(或相当于及物动词的短语动词)、介词后须带宾语,少数形容词后也可以带宾语。可以担任宾语的有:名词、代词、数词、动词不定式(短语)、动名词、名词化的形容词以及从句(宾语从句)等。
  (1)、名词
  I am reading a book. 名词作动词read的宾语。)
  I’m going to Beijing with my father. (名词作介词with的宾语。)
  We couldn’t finish the work without his help. (同上)
  In the past, many parents couldn’t afford education for their children.
  (2)、代词
  Yesterday, Tom’ mother looked after him at home.(代词宾格him作短语动词look after的宾语。)
  Please look it up in the dictionary. (代词宾格it 作短语动词look up的宾语)
  I have something to tell you.(不定代词短语作动词have的宾语)
  What would you like? (疑问代词作动词like的宾语。)
  Yesterday my father bought me  a new bike. (分别作动词bought的间接宾语和直接宾语)
  We got lost and couldn’t find each other. (反身代词)
  (3)、数词
  Give me three, please! (数词作直接宾语。)
  (4)、动词不定式(短语)
  Ilike to play basketball. (作动词的宾语。)
  Glad to meet you. (作形容词的宾语。)
  Nice to see you again!(同上)
  I’m sorry to trouble you. (同上)
  I think it impossible to climb the mountain. (it作形式宾语,动词不定式短语作真正宾语。)
  I don’t want to there again.
  I really like/hate to go shopping.
  (5)、动名词(短语)
  I enjoy listening to music very much. (作动词的宾语)
  Nice meeting you here today! (作形容词nice的宾语)
  (6)、形容词
  We must help the poor. (作动词的宾语)
  The new always takes place of the old. (作介词of的宾语)
  (7)、宾语从句
  He knows who is right. (作动词的宾语)
  I want to know what color is her favorite. (作动词不定式to know 宾语)
  I’m sure that she’ll come soon.(作形容词sure的宾语)
  I’m thinking of where I should go during the vacation. (作介词of的宾语)
  △几个常见加the后可以名词化的形容词是:poor, rich, young, old,happy, blind, beautiful等。
  △宾语从句应特别注意的三要素是:时态、语序、连接词。
  △少数能跟宾语的形容词有:happy, glad, nice, sure, certain, surprised, pleased, aware, afraid, proud, sorry, worried, ashamed等。
  △直接宾语和间接宾语:
  英语中,一些及物动词如:give, pass, show, send, bring, tell, teach, buy, lend等,可以带两个宾语。一个指人,叫间接宾语;一个指物,叫直接宾语。间接宾语一般放在直接宾语的前面。如果放在其后,则间接宾语前一般加介词to,以表示动作对准谁;或加介词for,以表示动作为谁做。例如:
  He gave me an interesting book.=He give an interesting book to me.
  Please bring me some snacks.=Please bring some snacks to me.
  Mother told me a story last night.=Mother told a story to me last night.
  My uncle often teaches me English songs.
  =My uncle often teaches English songs to me.
  Jim bought me a beautiful present.
  =Jim bought a beautiful present for me.
  如果直接宾语是代词,则必须放在间接宾语之前,并且在二者之间加上介词to或for。例如:
  Give it to me, Lily. 不能说 Give me it, Lily.
  There two pencils on the desk, pass them to me. 不能说  … pass me them.
  △复合宾语
  英语中,一些及物动词的宾语须在其后加上一个补足语,对其进一步作补充说明,意思才够完整和明确,该补足语即叫宾语补足语。宾语和其补足语一起构成复合宾语,二者之间存在着逻辑上的主谓关系。能担任宾语补足语的有:名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、不定式和分词(现在分词、过去分词)。例如:
  We must keep our classroom clean. (形容词,Classroom和clean之间存在着逻辑上的主谓关系,即:Our classroom is clean.)
  We call the bird “Polly”.(名词)
  (the bird和Polly之间存在着逻辑上的主谓关系,即:The bird is Polly.)
  Our teacher told us to do Exercise One. (动词不定式短语)
  (us 的主格we 和to do Exercise One之间存在着逻辑上的主谓关系,即:We should do Exercise One.)
  She always thinks others above herself. (介词短语)
  (Others is always above herself.)
  I brought my dog here. (副词,My dog was here.)
  I saw Jack playing under a tree. (现在分词短语,Jack was playing under a tree.)
  In one place I saw children working for a cruel boss.
  常见的可带复合宾语的动词有:call, find, believe, think, see, feel, make, keep, hear, name, tell, ask, want, invite, let, make, have等。因此我们常用到以下短语:ask( tell / want / invite … ) sb. to do sth.;
  let ( make / have / get … ) sb. do sth. ;
  see ( hear / watch / feel … ) sb. do sth.;
  see ( hear / watch / feel … ) sb. doing sth. 。
  其中,感官动词(see, hear … )和使役动词 ( let, make, have … )后,如果是动词不定式短语作宾语补足语,则习惯上去掉不定式符号 to ;但是,当把这类句子转换成被动语态时,又须将去掉的 to 加上。试比较:
  My father made me stay at home last night.
  → I was made to stay at home last night by my father.
  Tom saw me come back today.
  → I was seen to come back today by Tom.
  三、定 语
  修饰名词或代词的词、短语或句子,叫定语,也称之为名词的修饰语。与现代汉语的定语都是前置的所不同的是,英语的定语可以前置,也可以后置。独立的单词作定语时,习惯上放在被修饰的词之前作前置定语;短语或句子(定语从句)作定语时,应放在被修饰的词后面,作后置定语。能担任定语的有:形容词、代词、数词、名词、名词所有格(’s 或 of …)、分词(短语)、动名词(短语)、动词不定式(短语)、介词短语、冠词以及名词性从句(定语从句)。例如:
  1、冠词
  Mr. Smith gave me a book..
  2、形容词
  The beautiful picture was drawn by a famous artist.
  3、代词
  Our teacher is coming.(形容词性物主代词)
  Which book is mine.(疑问代词)
  4、数词
  Mike has two brothers.(基数词)
  Jim sits in the third row.(序数词)
  5、名词
  The apple trees were planted 3 years ago.
  The women doctors are from Beijing.
  Group One are girl students and Group Two are boy students.
  We met some men workers in the factory.
  6、名词所有格
  Mary’s brother is an engineer.
  These are some photos of my father.(名词所有格作后置定语,爸爸本人的片)
  These are some photos of my father's.(名词所有格作后置定语,爸爸收藏的照片)
  7、副词
  The people there are very friendly.(地点副词作后置定语)
  The newspaper today is sold out.(时间副词作后置定语)
  Would you like anything else?(后置定语)
  8、介词短语
  The boy under the tree is Jack. (介词短语作后置定语)
  I'd like to write an article about teenagers around the world.
  Now children in cities and villages can get a good education.
  Canada is a country with a lot of snow in winter.
  9、分词
  The destroyed bridge was rebuilt last winter. (过去分词)
  I know a boy called Tom.(过去分词短语作后置定语)
  The flying birds are moving towards the south because of the coming winter. (现在分词)
  The car running in the playground is my uncle's.(现在分词短语作后置定语)
  It shows that the population in developing countries is larger than that in developed countries.
  I lived in a small mountain town called Fairmont.
  10、动词不定式
  At last, we had nothing to eat but a little water.(动词不定式作后置定语)
  In the 1960s, few children had the chance to receive a good education.
  She has two children to take care of.(动词不定式短语作后置定语)
  They worked day and night and never had enough food to eat.
  11、动名词
  I often go to the reading room in the evening.(动名词)
  The habit eating too much is not good for your health.(动名词短语作后置定语)
  12、定语从句
  I know the 2 boys who broken the window yesterday.(定语从句)
  △ 后置定语的使用情形:
  使  用  情  形                  典    型   示   例
  1、短语作定语时应后置。             The girl in a hat.戴帽子的那个女孩。
  The boy swimming in the river.
  在河里游泳的那个男孩。
  a city called Beijing .
  一个叫北京的城市
  2、副词作定语时应后置
  (1)、表示时间或地点的副词 the newspaper yesterday 昨天的报纸
  作定语时应后置。常见的有:  the people here 这里的人民
  today , yesterday ,         the food there 那里的食物
  tomorrow,here,there,       the words below 下面的单词
  bellow,above,upstairs,      the room upstairs 楼上的那个房间
  downstairs,abroad 。
  (2)、副词else 与不定代词、 what else , anything else ,
  疑问代词连用作定语时应后置。      somebody else 。
  (3)、不定代词的定语应后置。
  例如:
  something,anything,nothing。    something new 一些新的东西
  anything to drink 一些(任何)喝的东西
  nothing important 没有什么重要的东西
  3、基数词、英文字母作定语  No. One , 第一个 ;
  表示排序时应后置。           Book One 第一册 ;
  Section A , A 部分;
  Picture C  第C 幅图
  4、enough 作形容词修饰名  They worked day and night and never had         词时,可放在名词之前,也可  enough food /food enoughto eat.             以放在其后。         他们过去日夜劳作,却没有足够的食物。
  5、定语从句放在被修饰的名
  词或代词之后。          I like to have friends who are different                    from me.
  I don’t like those who are selfish
  △ 动词不定式作定语时,与所修饰的词通常存在逻辑上的动宾关系。例如:
  Please give me something to eat. 存在的逻辑动宾关系是:to eat something;
  There is no chair sit to sit on. 存在的逻辑动宾关系是:to sit on the chair; 所以介词 on 不能省略;
  △ 名词作定语时一般不需要与其所修饰的词在数上保持一致,但是man 和woman 作定语时应和其所的名词在数上保持一致。例如:
  An apple tree, three apple trees ; a bus driver, some bus drivers ;
  a man worker , two men workers ; many women teachers .
  △ 现在分词、过去分词以及动名词作定语时的区别:现在分词表示主动意义,表示所修饰的词正在进行的动作;过去分词表示被动意义,表示所修饰的名词所施加的被动动作已完成;动名词虽然在形式上与现在分词一样,但是不表示动作,而是表示所修饰的名词的内容或用途。
  △ 相互之间意义独立的形容词修饰共同的名词时,一律放在前面。例如:
  a beautiful young American girl ; an English training school.
  四、状 语
  修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子的词、短语或从句(状语从句),叫状语。状语在句中可以表示:时间、地点、目的、原因、结果、条件、让步、程度、方式、比较、方向以及伴随等情况。能担任状语的有:副词、介词短语、动词不定式、名词以及if,whether,when,while,as soon as,because , until ,before 等引导的状语从句。例如:
  1、副词
  He can play the guitar well. (程度)
  Please read aloud!(方式)
  I'm going to Beijing today.(时间)
  It is raining hard.(方式)
  Luckily, he didn’t hurt himself.(方式)
  We all went into the classroom excitedly.(方式)
  Come in , please!(方向)
  2 、介词短语
  He stayed at home.(地点)
  Thank you for your help.(原因)
  Ann run to the door quickly.(方向)
  My teacher went into his office with a smile.(方式)
  Lily is taller than her sister. (比较)
  I’m going to the hospital .(地点)
  I like to go to school by bus.(方式)
  I have been to Mount Huang with my parents.(方式)
  People kept in touch with their friends and relatives far away mainly by letter or telegram. (方式)
  We shall leave for Shanghai tomorrow. (地点)
  But in order to help support their family, they had to work for the bosses.
  3、动词不定式
  The little boy is too young to look after himself.(结果)
  I haven’t got money enough to buy the new bike.(结果)
  4、名词
  Wait a minute, please.(时间)
  Come this way, please.(方向)
  Come home earlier this evening.(时间)
  Thanks a lot. (程度)
  People's living conditions have improved a lot. (程度)
  5、状语从句
  If it rains tomorrow, we will stay at home.(条件)
  When we get there, we shall come to see you right away. (时间)
  I'll not come to his party unless I get his invitation. (条件)
  I can’t go shopping in big stores unless I travel for a couple of hours.
  I'll write an E-mail to you as soon as I get to America.(时间)
  Jack stays in bed because he is ill today. (原因)
  I got up early this morning so that I could catch up the train. (目的)
  The movie is so interesting that I have seen it twice. (结果)
  Life was so hard that people had no time or money to enjoy leisure activities. (结果)
  Father came back while I was cooking the supper. (时间)
  △在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,不能使用任何形式的将来时(一般将来时或过去将来时)。当它们用于修饰时态为将来时的主句时,其本身则不能在时态上与主句保持一致,而用一般现在时来代替一般将来时,或用过去将来时来代替过去将来时。
  △状语在句子中的位置。

 

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